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An informed citizenry is an essential element of maintaining a free society. Having a deeper understanding of how legislation impacts education freedom, economic freedom and the constitutional principles of individual liberty and limited government allows citizens to better understand the known and often unknown consequences of legislative issues.
Click here to download a pocket-sized version of the 2013 Kansas Freedom Index
View 2014 Kansas Freedom Index Results
The 2014 Freedom Index is a continuation of a coalition project started in 2012. The 2014 iteration is solely an effort of KPI and has been expanded to also track education freedom, differentiating between legislation that is student-focused and that which is primarily designed for institutional benefit or the adults working in public education.
View Legislator Scores
Interpreting Legislators' Votes
The 2013 Freedom Index is intended to provide
Download a pocket-sized version of the 2013 KFI as part of KPI's "FactBook" Series
educational information to the public about broad economic and education issues that are important to the citizens of our State. It is the product of nonpartisan analysis, study, and research and is not intended to directly or indirectly endorse or oppose any candidate for public office.
Tracking the Economic & Education Freedom Votes of the Kansas Legislature...
Economic freedom and education freedom are not partisan issues. Indeed, the
2012 Kansas Economic Freedom Index
showed that quite clearly. There were 32 Republicans and 8 Democrats in the 2012 Senate; the House had 92 Republicans and 33 Democrats. Those counts would produce fairly strong results one way or the other if economic freedom was a partisan issue, but instead, the overall score of both chambers was very near neutral (See Methodology for an explanation).
It is not about party affiliations or labels like liberal, moderate or conservative. Rather, it is about a philosophical belief in the role of government. The filters are not ‘D’ and ‘R’, but ‘E,’ ‘L’ and ‘C’. Some citizens have a strong philosophical belief in an Expanding government, while others are grounded in a strong philosophical belief in Limited government. And there are some citizens for whom the primary litmus test is more Circumstantial rather than a strong philosophical belief about the role of government. Government also is the dividing line on education issues. Debates on school choice issues, for example, often come down to whether the interests of individual students or school districts should prevail.
Legislative action in the Kansas House and Senate, whether in the form of final action or some of the many important steps along the way, are selected for inclusion in the 2013 Kansas Freedom Index based on the impact the proposed legislation has on student-focused education issues, the free market and the constitutional principles of individual liberty and limited government. Selections were included in the Index to provide educational information about broad economic and education issues. The Index is the product of nonpartisan analysis, study, and research; it is not intended to directly or indirectly endorse or oppose any candidate for public office.
For the first time, the 2013 Kansas Freedom Index may include notification that a bill will be included in the Index before voting begins in a given chamber of the Kansas Legislature. A notification that a bill will be scored before a vote actually takes place should consider the bill “as written.” Final inclusion or the actual score given to a bill is subject to change based upon any amendments that are added to the bill before final action; this will be noted in the final analysis of a given piece of legislation.
Also noteworthy in the 2013 Freedom Index is that the fiscal impact of a bill will only be considered within the current budget cycle. Recent legislative efforts to phase in income tax reform over multiple years have prompted this revision from previous iterations of the Freedom Index.
The 2012 Legislature passed legislation that, when fully implemented, would reduce taxes by more than $800 million per year. The 2013 Legislature is considering proposals that would 'pay for' tax reform by increasing the sales tax, reduce or eliminate income tax deductions but also reduce income tax rates in the future. The net effect over five or more years is a tax reduction but there would be tax increases in earlier years.
Economic freedom results from reducing a tax burden, which requires a reduction in spending. There are several proposals with the 2013 Legislature to use various tax increases and some small spending reductions to ‘pay for’ the 2012 tax reform. Given that action and the fact that the current legislature cannot bind future legislatures, it cannot be said with absolute certainty that a net tax reduction planned for future years will actually take place. Accordingly, we will only consider the fiscal impact of multi-year phase-ins within the current budget cycle. Legislation that increases tax or fee revenue outside the current budget cycle, however, will be counted to avoid attempts to ‘game’ the system, via never having tax increases scored because they fall outside the current budget cycle. This refinement is retroactive to the beginning of the 2013 Legislative session.
Each legislator’s vote, or failure to vote, is assigned points from one of two tiers based on the criteria listed below, with points assessed to each legislator based upon his or her vote. A vote in support of individual liberty, limited government, free markets and student-focused education will receive positive points; a vote opposed to those principles will receive negative points. A vote of Present or Not Voting will be awarded zero points.
For example, consider a bill creating a new licensing board that requires dog groomers to pay a small fee and meet state requirements to operate. The Economic Freedom Index would be scored as follows: negative one (-1) for creation of the licensing board and negative one (-1) for creating a new fee; total score assigned would be negative two (-2). A legislator voting against this bill would be awarded positive two (+2) points. Conversely, a legislator voting for the bill would be awarded negative two (-2) points.
A positive cumulative score indicates that a legislator generally supported freedom, while a negative cumulative score indicates that a legislator generally opposed freedom. A score of zero indicates that a legislator was generally neutral on freedom. The cumulative score only pertains to the specific votes included in the Kansas Freedom Index and should not be interpreted otherwise. A different set of issues and/or a different set of circumstances could result in different cumulative scores.
Vote tracking information, bill summaries, etc. were compiled via
Bill Track 50
, an independent clearinghouse of legislative data from all 50 states.
Tier 1 – Three points awarded for each applicable criteria which has a major impact on the functioning of student-focused education, free markets or the constitutional principles of individual liberty and limited government.
Does it create or eliminate an agency, program or function of government? Does it attempt to prevent the consolidation of multiple agencies? Consolidation of multiple agencies into a new agency is not considered creation of an agency for this purpose.
Does it remove or give the government new power to prohibit or restrict activities in the free market? Examples may include licensing requirements and other restrictions on legal business practices.
Is it hostile to the concept of Federalism as set forth in the 10th Amendment? Does it restrict property, speech, gun or other constitutionally-recognized rights or freedoms? Conversely, does it restore balance between the state and federal government, resume state authority over an issue under the 10th Amendment, or remove restrictions on constitutionally-protected rights?
Is it supportive of or hostile to the Separation of Powers doctrine?
Does it have a major positive or negative impact on the overall tax burden?
Does it hold government accountable by making services more accessible and/or improve quality at the same price? Conversely, does it prevent such circumstances by favoring the interest of government employees over taxpayers?
Does it reaffirm basic legal rights or otherwise protect citizens from judicial activism?
Does it enhance or restrict citizen input on the selection of judges?
Does it provide students and parents more choice or does it restrict school choice options?
Tier 2 – One point awarded for each applicable criteria which has an important, but less significant, impact on the functioning of free markets or the constitutional principles of individual liberty, limited government.
Does it redistribute income, or use tax policy or other incentives to reward specific interest groups, individual businesses, or industries with special favors or perks? Conversely, does it eliminate special favors and perks in the tax code or public policy?
Does it perform a function that can and should be performed by the private sector, or restore functions to the private sector?
Does it grow or shrink the regulatory scope of an agency?
Does it add or remove a minor agency or licensing board?
Does it directly or indirectly create/reduce taxes, fees or other assessments?
Does it increase or decrease control of the private sector through rules, regulation or statute?
Does it increase or decrease long-term debt, or override or restore statutory or constitutional protections against long-term debt?
Does it give or reduce special benefits for government employees or elected officials?
Does it promote government transparency or does it restrict access to information that should be in the public domain?
Does it change licensing provisions in ways that further restrict competition in the free market or does it relax regulations to encourage competition or otherwise provide for the functioning of free markets?
Does it promote more efficient use of taxpayer funds or does it oppose or reduce government efficiency?
Does it give teachers, principals, school districts or the Department of Education more flexibility to make student-focused decisions by relaxing or eliminating regulations or does it increase regulatory control?
Does it prevent or allow government funds or operations from being used for political purposes?
Does it require school districts to make student-focused decisions related to student achievement or does it allow school districts to put other considerations ahead of student-focused achievement?
The Freedom Percentage represents the relative position of a legislator’s score on a number line of the minimum and maximum score, with the percentage indicating proximity to the maximum score. For example, if a legislator with score range of ±43 and a score of zero would be at the 50% point of the minimum / maximum number line. A legislator with a score of negative 20 on that same range would be at the 26.7% point (Freedom Percentage) on the number line (or 73.7% away from the maximum). It is calculated by adding the maximum positive score for the House or Senate to each legislator’s actual score and dividing the total by twice the appropriate maximum score.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the
Idaho Freedom Foundation
our coalition partners from 2012
in developing this index. IFF is a non-partisan educational research institute and allowed us to use their Freedom Index as a model for this project.
Interpreting Legislators’ Votes
Some legislators may object to the inclusion or classification of their votes on a particular bill for a variety of reasons. Kansas Policy Institute acknowledges that such issues are subjective in nature and open to interpretation. The decision to include or exclude a particular bill or procedural vote is based on our view of the issues at hand without regard to party affiliation or the intent of an individual legislator.
We also recognize that a legislator may occasionally cast a vote that is contrary to his or her true belief on an issue for procedural or parochial reasons.
Unfortunately, there is no way to fairly interpret the intent behind each vote so in the interest of avoiding any concerns of partisanship, we simply record each vote as cast.
It should also be noted that some legislators choose not to cast a vote in some cases (this is recorded as a vote of ‘Present’). When a legislator is not in the House or Senate chamber at the time of a vote, it is recorded as “Not Voting”. While the motive behind a ‘Present’ vote is often understood by regular observers of the Legislature, we assign zero points to ‘Present’ to avoid any concerns of partisanship. Similarly, legislators may be unavoidably absent when a vote is taken; zero points are awarded even though their position on an issue may be well known to ensure the non-partisan nature of the 2013 Kansas Freedom Index.
Again, the 2013 Kansas Freedom Index is intended to provide educational information to the public about broad economic and education issues that are important to the citizens of our State. It is the product of nonpartisan analysis, study, and research and is not intended to directly or indirectly endorse or oppose any candidate for public office.
Click below to view previous editions of the Kansas Freedom Index.
Kansas Economic Freedom Index
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